The Deliberative Democracy Consortium

Apr 01st
Text size
  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size
Home Resources Member Posts Issue Framing: Issue Books and Implications for Community Action

Issue Framing: Issue Books and Implications for Community Action

E-mail Print PDF
by Christopher Kelley, Program Associate, the Kettering Foundation

The Kettering Foundation long ago identified a disconnect between the 'public' and 'politics.' People in communities all over the country felt estranged from their elected representatives, from their public institutions, and most importantly, from each other. A significant portion of this disconnect focused on how issues in communities got named and framed. Kettering surmised, correctly, that if a public issue was named in such a way that the public could not identify with it, then the public would have a difficult time supporting it. However, if the public could identify a public problem together (naming) and then discuss choices on how to solve the particular problem (framing), then the likelihood of greater community action increased ten-fold.

So the Kettering Foundation wrote a short book on how to name and frame problems in public terms. The Kettering Foundation has also been instrumental in framing issues across a whole spectrum of public problems so that the public could come together to deliberate over the value tensions and trade-offs in the issue. Hence, Kettering has a number of issue books that have been used through the National Issues Forums and other organizations/institutions all over the country for a number of years. Recently, the Foundation sought to explore why some issue books spark the vital insight for a public to come to see public problems and why some do not. What we found was striking.

Kettering found that if the public could identify a public problem together (naming) and then discuss choices on how to solve the particular problem (framing), then the likelihood of greater community action increased ten-fold.

By examining our issue books that have been published over the last five years, we found that the issue books are not uniform in what they ask of the public, and in some instances, our issue books make it difficult for the public to not just solve a particular problem, but also difficult to even determine what the issue was in the first place. We identified three different types of issue books.

Type One books, such as the issue book Money and Politics was classified as a "meta-issue" book. A meta-issue book asked a broad question such as, "what is the problem that needs to be addressed" in each of the competing approaches. Our forums using these books tended towards competing definitions of the problem and how best to name the problem. The implied actor in these books was the public.

Type Two books, such as Protecting Our Rights, names a specific issue that is addressed in each of the competing approaches. Each approach tends to describe a causal framework or a solution to the problem. The implied actor in these books, rather than the public, is typically the government or some other institution. Hence, whatever role the public had in the issue, it was largely indirect.

Type Three books, such as Alcohol: Controlling the Toxic Spill, have a well-defined problem that is consistent throughout the choices, but the focus, rather than on causes or solutions, is on values and trade-offs. These books are meant to provoke discussion over what trade-offs citizens are willing to make and which approach best matches what the citizens holds to be valuable. These book have a wide variety of implied actors that include both the public and institutions.

Of all the three types, only type three issue books capture what the Kettering Foundation normatively holds as provoking deliberation. Only by critically evaluating our own research are we best able to discern why some books work well and others do not, but also to learn the importance of issue frames and public action. We feel that any organization that is involved with developing guides to provoke public deliberation or are using any number of guides to provoke public deliberation understand what the guide is asking of the public, and what goals the organizations itself has in studying/provoking public deliberation.



JPD logoThe Journal of Public Deliberation is a collaboration between the DDC, the International Association for Public Participation (IAP2), and the Center for Civic Discourse and Democracy at Kansas State University. An online, refereed journal, JPD is the flagship publication in its field, and an important catalyst for the rapid growth of interest in democracy, citizenship, and participation. Find it at


DDC eBulletin

Join us on Facebook

Facebook logoFor news, resources, and updates on deliberation, participation, and democratic governance around the world, like DDC on Facebook! Find us at and click “Like” at the top of the page.

Deliberative Democracy Handbook

The Deliberative Democracy Handbook is the first book to bring together the best practices and thinkin on deliberative citizen participation processes. Deliberative democracy is the nationwide movement to make citizen participation meaningful and effective. Learn more...

Deliberative Democracy Handbook Cover

The Next Form of Democracy

Beneath the national radar, the relationship between citizens and government is undergoing a dramatic shift. The stories of civic experiments in "The Next Form of Democracy: How Expert Rule Is Giving Way to Shared Governance -- and Why Politics Will Never Be the Same" by DDC Executive Director Matt Leighninger show us the realpolitik of deliberative democracy, and illustrate how the evolution of democracy is already reshaping politics. Learn more...

Journal of Public Deliberation
Visit the JPD >>

Democracy Helpline

Deliberative Democracy HelplineThe growth of democratic governance has been a grassroots phenomenon. The promise of the Democracy Helpline, a project of the Deliberative Democracy Consortium and its Partners, is to enable a broader array of people to make use of these powerful democratic strategies and principles. Learn more...